State Department of Education TBI Pages

The Ohio Department of Education page on TBI is located at http://education.ohio.gov/Topics/Special-Education/Students-with-Disabilities/Traumatic-Brain-Injury

This page includes a lot of great resources for TBI, but one of the most important pieces of information for Ohio’s practitioners is that “Ohio’s educational definition of traumatic brain injury is not restricted to injuries resulting from external trauma. It is more inclusive than the IDEA definition. Ohio’s definition covers conditions such as strokes, tumors, and injuries caused by surgeries. This expansion of the federal definition allows more children with brain injuries to be identified under the TBI category for the purpose of receiving special educational services.”

Wisconsin’s Memory Module, linked on the ODE page, is also a valuable resource (http://dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/sped/pdf/tbi-memory-ppt.pdf). It discusses how a TBI affects memory, gives a description of various parts of the brain, common issues and fixes (e.g. environmental modifications), what a teacher may see in the classroom, and strategies.

Strategies discussed include:

  1. Instructional Strategies – explicit strategies with chances for practice,
  2. Cued Recall – student is asked to recall recently prevented information with cues and organization
  3. External Memory Aides – to help a student remember an event or process, which could include rearrangement of the environment (e.g. visual schedules).

It also includes the TBI Memory Checklist, available at:

http://dpi.wi.gov/sites/default/files/imce/sped/pdf/tbi-checklist.pdf 

Their Memory Strategy Chart may also be valuable (Slide 39), in addition to their Accommodations and Modifications Charts, which are available at:

http://dpi.wi.gov/sped/program/traumatic-brain-injury

 

Lastly, the Tennessee Department of Education has developed a resource packet for TBI, which can be accessed at:

https://www.tn.gov/assets/entities/education/attachments/se_eligibility_traumatic_brain_inj_res_pkt.pdf

It includes background information, resources, assessment examples, checklists, definitions,

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TBI Class Handouts

From our class on TBI, our professor shared two handout-resources and I feel as if this would be a good place to save these brief handouts. One is a brief primer on the importance of executive function, and the other is a handout of guidelines for families and schools in assisting students who have undergone a traumatic brain injury. Both resources are brief, but have valuable information for any practitioner.

TBI – Guidelines for Families and Schools

Brain as CEO – TBI

 

What is TBI? – Resources

TBI.org has provided an extensive list of FAQs along with their answers at http://www.tbi.org/category/what-is-tbi. This FAQ includes:

  • What is a Traumatic Brain Injury?
  • What are its effects?
  • When will he/she wake up?
  • How do we know how bad the injury is?
  • What will be the outcome?
  • What can I do to improve the outcome?
    • Cognitive Rehabilitation, Family Therapy, Substance Abuse Counseling, Political Advocacy are their main results

TBI.org also provides an “Educator’s Guide to the Brain” at http://www.tbi.org/pediatric-tbi/educators_guide.html. This guide gives a description of various parts of the brain, what happens to it during an injury, geography/parts of the brain, and information about recovery/cognitive development.

Ohio State University TBI ID Interview Form

Ohio State University has published a TBI identification method, designed as a “standardized, short, structured interview designed to elicit a rich lifetime TBI history.” (via http://www.brainline.org/content/2013/08/new-tbi-screening-tool.html). The aforementioned website also includes a presentation on the tool, which provides training on the purpose of the TBI-ID form, a description of why screening is important, and training in conducting an interview and interpreting the results. As school psychologists, it is not our job to medically diagnose a TBI. However, if provided with information from a doctor that indicates a TBI, or we have a reason to believe such an injury has occurred, this screening interview tool may be a valuable resource in gathering data on the student and their medical history. However, as with any measure in which the participant reports their own history, it is possible to make errors or not report certain history, and outside or medical assistance is likely to be helpful in TBI cases.

The screening tool itself can be accessed from: http://www.brainline.org/content/2013/08/new-tbi-screening-tool.html

 

Accommodations for TBI

DadeSchools created a quick list of accommodations that may be useful for a student who has recently suffered a Traumatic Brain Injury. These accommodations can be incorporated into the classroom temporarily following a TBI, or added to a 504 Plan or IEP, depending on the severity of the injury and its impact on the student’s educational functioning.

Environmental Modifications:

  • minimize extraneous auditory and visual stimulation (use study carrels or room dividers)
  • provide preferential seating
  • arrange seating to allow for more space between students
  • provide small group instruction
  • structure student’s activities and schedule to limit number of changes and reduce unstructured time
  • limit number of persons that the student deals with each day
  • provide the student with a written schedule and keep the schedule as consistent as possible
  • provide area to keep supplies, books, etc., away from student’s work area
  • select a classroom buddy

Learning Strategies:

  • gain the student’s attention before speaking
  • break complex tasks down into component parts and complete each part before trying to combine the components
  • provide frequent repetition of important tasks
  • utilize the child’s best sensory modality
  • question student to be sure the information was received and interpreted clearly and provide feedback as necessary
  • provide cueing systems in the form of assignment books, placing task cues on student’s desk, etc.
  • provide verbal and written instruction
  • shorten assignments and/or divide assignments into parts
  • structure thinking processes graphically through outlines, graphs, flow charts and models
  • develop a system for maintaining organization
  • facilitate note taking by providing outlines with major headings
  • give short frequent quizzes, rather than all inclusive exams
  • accompany homework with written instructions
  • initiate a behavior modification program for academic and/or interpersonal behavior skills encouraging student to chart his or her progress.

 

via http://ese.dadeschools.net/tbi/2classroom.html, which was accessed from the National Association of Special Education Teachers website on TBI (https://www.naset.org/traumaticbraininj2.0.html), which may also be valuable for finding other resources and interventions for TBI.

 

CDC Concussion Fact Sheet

Concussions are arguably the most commonly referenced form of Traumatic Brain Injury. The CDC published a PDF Fact Sheet summarizing information about concussions, symptoms, and some tips for improvement. This fact sheet would be an ideal resource to hand to parents or a teacher of a student who has recently suffered a concussion, whether at home, during a sport, or on the playground.

The tips listed, for quick reference, are:

  • Get plenty of sleep at night and rest during the day
  • Avoid physically demanding or high concentration activities
  • Ask your doctor about your limits for dangerous activities (e.g. driving, biking)
  • Do not drink alcohol

http://www.cdc.gov/traumaticbraininjury/pdf/fact_sheet_concusstbi-a.pdf